The steering system changes the position of the front wheels in order to control direction of the vehicle.
This system includes:
Steering wheel which the driver controls, steering column which connects the steering wheel to the gearbox, steering gearbox which converts the motion of the wheel into a linear motion, steering linkage which is a series of arms, rods, tie-rods that cause front wheels to change position and power steering which helps facilitate steering.
Common signs of steering problems are:
Excessive movement in steering wheel
Wobbling, shaking or pulling to one side
Squealing sounds when you turn at normal speeds
The suspension system supports the weight of the vehicle, holds the wheels in alignment, absorbs shocks caused by road irregularities and ensures vehicle stability. This system includes:
Springs, shock absorbers, stabilizer bars, macpherson strut and hydraulic actuators.
Have the shocks checked for leakage
If your vehicle tends to bounce while driving, check shocks by pushing down on the corners of vehicle
Whenever your vehicle does not appear to be level, have springs checked for sag, wear and/or breakage
The electrical system of the vehicle includes the ignition, charging and starting systems.
Ignition System: converts the 12 volt battery current to high voltage surges directed to the spark plug at the proper time to initiate combustion.
Charging System: produces electrical power while the engine is running to operate all the electrical components and recharge the battery.
Starting System: permits the drive to turn the ignition switch to activate an electric motor to crank and usually start the engine.
Accessory Circuits: power the lights, safety systems and accessories.
Basic Components of the electrical system:
1. The fuse box which protects electrical equipment
2. Ignition coil which transforms the 12 volt current to a surge of current
3. Spark plug which produces a spark to ignite the fuel
4. Battery which stores energy
5. Distributor which produces and produces the surges to the spark plugs
6. Starter which is an electric motor that cranks the engine
7. Alternator which is driven by the belt, charges the battery and operates electrical components
The fuel system provides the correct fuel/air mixture under all operating conditions. Fuel injection systems deliver fuel to each cylinder to maximize power/economy. Basic components of the fuel system are:
Fuel tank which is a reservoir for fuel, fuel line which is steel tubes that connect the tank to the carberator, fuel injection which supplies fuel to the engine, fuel filter which removes dirt from fuel, fuel pump which forces fuel from tank and air filter which removes dirt and dust particles from engine.
Engine Lubrication System
The engine lubrication system which circulates oil under pressure to all the moving engine components. Oil reduces friction, cool and cleans moving parts, cushions shocks and prevents rust. Basic components of the system are:
Gauge Indicator Light
Gauge/indicator light to inform the driver of the pressure, oil filler cap which is on top of the valve, dipstick which is an oil level indicator, oil pan which is a reservoir to block oil from dripping, oil pump which draws the pil from the pan and oil filter which removes impurities from the oil before it circulates to all the moving components.
To maintain the engine lubrication system, check oil level each time you gas up, 2) pull out the dipstick, wipe it, reinsert it fully and pull it out again to check the level of the oil.
The cooling system brings the engine to its most efficient operating temperature as quickly as possible and maintains that temperature in all operating components. Some of the heat that is absorbed is used to provide heat for the passenger compartment in inclement weather. Components of the cooling system are:
Thermostat which regulates coolant flow, expansion tank which is connected to the radiator neck, radiator which is a reservoir that transfers heat to the air passing through the core, radiator cap which seals the radiator, cooling fan which provides a draft of air through the radiator fins, hoses which take coolant back to engine, water pump which circulates the coolant and drive belt which drives the water and the fan.
The brake system permits the driver to slow or stop rotation of the tires. Modern vehicles are equipped with two systems, a dual hydraulic brake and a mechanical brake. Braking system components are:
Disc brakes, drum brakes, dual master cylinder, brake lines, power brake, parking brake and indicator light.
Maintenance tips for the braking system:
– Check brake fluid level at least once a month
– Lubricate and adjust the parking brake cables every oil change
– If the brake pedal feels low or soft, vehicle pulls to one side during braking or makes unusual noises have the brake system checked by a service technician.
– Have the brake system cleaned, verified and adjusted every spring
– The brake system warning light informs you: the paring brake is engaged, there is brake system malfunction or the brake fluid is low.